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The original Richard Wilhelm translation for the hexagram line...


既济

Hexagram 63
Chi Chi - After Completion

yin
yang above: K'an / The Abysmal, Water
yin
yang
yin below: Li / The Clinging, Fire
yang
 

Large bronze wine jar
Shang or Yin Dynasty



CHANGING LINE:

Hexagram Sixty-Three/Line Three


Nine in the third place means:
The Illustrious Ancestor
Disciplines the Devil's Country.
After three years he conquers it.
Inferior people must not be employed.

Shang Dynasty (Yin Dynasty in its later stages)


"Illustrious Ancestor" is the dynastic title of the Emperor Wu Ting of the Yin dynasty.1 After putting his realm in order with a strong hand, he waged long colonial wars for the subjection of the Huns who occupied the northern borderland with constant threat of incursions.
The situation described is as follows. After times of completion, when a new power has arisen and everything within the country has been set in order, a period of colonial expansion almost inevitably follows. Then as a rule long-drawn-out struggles must be reckoned with. For this reason, a correct colonial policy is especially important. The territory won at such bitter cost must not be regarded as an almshouse for people who in one way or another have made themselves impossible at home, but who are thought to be quite good enough for the colonies. Such a policy ruins at the outset any chance of success. This holds true in small as well as in large matters, because it is not only rising states that carry on a colonial policy; the urge to expand, with its accompanying dangers, is part and parcel of every ambitious undertaking.



1. [Wu Ting reigned from 1324 to 1266 B.C.]
The Shang dynasty in its later stages is also called the Yin dynasty.
It is believed to have been founded by a rebel leader who overthrew the last Xia ruler. Its civilization was based on agriculture, augmented by hunting and animal husbandry. Two important events of the period were the development of a writing system, as revealed in archaic Chinese inscriptions found on tortoise shells and flat cattle bones (commonly called oracle bones), and the use of bronze metallurgy. A number of ceremonial bronze vessels with inscriptions date from the Shang period; the workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization.



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